Male fertility

Causes of impaired male fertility

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Male fertility can be affected by a variety of factors. It is important to know the different causes in order to find appropriate solutions and treatments. This article reviews the main causes of impaired male fertility.

Medical causes

There are many medical reasons that can lead to fertility problems:

Hormonal imbalances

An imbalance in male sex hormones can affect sperm production.

Testicular problems

Damage, inflammation or malformation of the testicles can affect sperm production and maturation.

Blockage of the vas deferens

Prevents the transport of sperm from the testis to the penis.

Environmental factors

External influences can also have a negative impact on fertility:

Radiation exposure

Frequent contact with high doses of radiation, as in certain occupations or through medical treatments, can affect sperm production.

Pollutant exposure

Some chemicals and heavy metals can reduce the quality and number of sperm.

Testicles overheating

Wearing clothes that are too tight, taking frequent saunas, or working in hot environments can raise the temperature of the testicles, which can affect sperm production.

Lifestyle factors

A man's lifestyle can directly affect his fertility:

Drug and alcohol use

Both can reduce sperm quality and quantity.


Cigarette smoke may affect sperm morphology and motility.


Increased BMI can cause hormone imbalances that affect sperm production.

Other causes

Some other factors may also play a role:

Genetic factors

Some men have genetic abnormalities that affect their fertility.

Medications and treatments

Some medications, especially those used to treat cancer, can affect male fertility.

Psychological factors

Stress and other psychological strains can affect hormone levels and thus sperm production.


Male fertility can be affected by a variety of causes, ranging from medical problems to environmental factors to lifestyle habits. In case of fertility problems, it is important to consult a specialist to determine the exact cause and find the most appropriate treatment.

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